The Treaty of Peace between The Republic of Finland and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The government of the Republic of Finland on the one hand and The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the other hand,
Desiring to put an end to the hostilities which have arisen between the two countries and to create lasting peaceful relations between them,
And being convinced that the creation of precise conditions for reciprocal security, including the security of the cities of Leningrad and Murmansk and the Murmansk Railway, corresponds to the interest of both contracting parties,
Have to this end found it necessary to conclude a peace treaty and have appointed as their representatives for this purpose
The government of the Republic of Finland:
· Risto Ryti, Prime Minister of the Republic of Finland
· Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Minister
· General Rudolf Walden
· Professor Väinö Voionmaa
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Socialist Republics:
· Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs
· Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov, member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
· Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevski, Brigade Commander
The above-mentioned representatives, after exchange of credentials which were found to be in due form and good order, have agreed upon the following:
Hostilities between Finland and the U.S.S.R. shall cease immediately in accordance with procedure laid down in the protocol appended to this treaty.
The national frontier between the Republic of Finland and the U.S.S.R. shall run along a new line in such fashion that there shall be included in the territory of the U.S.S.R. the entire Karelian Isthmus with the city of Viipuri and Viipuri Bay with its islands, the western and northern shores of Lake Ladoga with the cities of Kexholm and Sortavala and the town of Suojärvi, a number of islands in the Gulf of Finland, the area east of Märkäjärvi with the town of Kuolajärvi, and part of the Rybachi and Sredni peninsulas, all in accordance with the map appended to this treaty.
A more detailed determination and establishment of the frontier line shall be carried out by a mixed commission made up of representatives of the contracting powers, which commission shall be named within ten days from the date of the signing of this treaty.
Both contracting parties undertake each to refrain from any attack upon the other and to make no alliance and to participate in no coalition directed against either of the contracting parties.
The Republic of Finland agrees to lease to the Soviet Union for thirty years, against an annual rental of eight million Finnish marks to be paid by the Soviet Union, Hanko Cape and the waters surrounding it in a radius of five miles to the south and east and three miles to the north and west, and also the several islands falling within that area, in accordance with the map appended to this treaty, for the establishment of a naval base capable of defending the mouth of the Gulf of Finland against attack; in addition to which, for the purpose of protecting the naval base, the Soviet Union is granted the right of maintaining there at its own expense the necessary number of armed land and air forces.
Within the days from the date this treaty enters into effect, the government of Finland shall withdraw all its military forces from Hanko Cape, which together with its adjoining islands shall be transferred to the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R. in accordance with this article of the treaty.
The U.S.S.R. undertakes to withdraw it troops from the Petsamo area which the Soviet state voluntarily ceded to Finland under the peace treaty of 1920.
Finland undertakes, as provided in the peace treaty of 1920, to refrain from maintaining in the waters running along its coast of the Arctic Ocean warships and other armed ships, excluding armed ships of less than one hundred tons displacement, which Finland shall be entitled to maintain without restriction, and also at most fifteen warships or other armed ships, the displacement of none of which shall exceed four hundred tons.
Finland undertakes, as was provided in the same treaty, not to maintain in the said waters any submarines or armed aircraft.
Finland similarly undertakes, as was provided in the same treaty, not to establish on that coast military ports, naval bases, or naval repair shops of greater capacity than is necessary for the above-mentioned ships and their armament.
As provided in the treaty of 1920, the Soviet Union and its citizens are granted the right of free transit across the Petsamo area to Norway and back, in addition to which the Soviet Union is granted the right to establish a consulate in the Petsamo area.
Merchandise shipped through the Petsamo area from the Soviet Union to Norway, and likewise merchandise shipped through the same area from Norway to the Soviet Union, is exempted from inspection and control, with the exception of such control as is necessary for the regulation of transit traffic; neither customs duties nor transit or other charges shall be assessed.
The above-mentioned control of transit merchandise shall be permitted only in the form usual in such cases in accordance with established practice in international communications.
Citizens of the Soviet Union who travel through the Petsamo area to Norway and from Norway back to the Soviet Union shall be entitled to free transit passage on the basis of passports issued by the appropriate officials of the Soviet Union.
Observing general directives in effect, unarmed Soviet aircraft shall be entitled to maintain air service between the Soviet Union and Norway via the Petsamo area.
The government of Finland grants to the Soviet Union the right of transit for goods between the Soviet Union and Sweden, and, with a view to developing this traffic along the shortest railway route, the Soviet Union and Finland consider it necessary to build, each upon its own territory and insofar as possible in the year 1940, a railway which shall connect Kantalahti (Kandalaksha) with Kemijärvi.
Upon the coming into force of this treaty economic relations between the contracting parties shall be restored, and with this end in view the contracting parties shall enter into negotiations for the conclusion of a trade agreement.
This treaty of peace shall enter into effect immediately upon being signed, and shall be subject to subsequent ratification.
The exchange of instruments of ratification shall take place within ten days in the city of Moscow.
This treaty has been prepared in two original instruments, in the Finnish and Swedish languages and in Russian, at Moscow this twelfth day of March, 1940.
Protocol appended to the treaty of peace concluded between Finland and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on March 12, 1940
The contracting parties confirm the following arrangement for cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of troops beyond the national boundary established by the peace treaty:
1. Both sides shall cease hostilities on March 13, 1940, at 12:00 noon Leningrad time.
2. As from the hour fixed for the cessation of hostilities there shall be established a neutral zone, one kilometer in depth, between the positions of advanced units, whereupon within the course of the first day forces of that party to the treaty which under the new national boundary find themselves in territory pertaining to the other party to the treaty shall withdraw one kilometer's distance.
3. Withdrawal of troops beyond the new national boundary and advance of the troops of the other party to this national boundary shall commence on March 15 from 10:00 A.M. along the whole frontier from the Gulf of Finland to Lieksa, and on March 16 from 10:00 A.M. at points north of Lieksa. Withdrawal shall be effected through daily marches of not less than seven kilometers, the advance of troops of the other party taking place in such fashion that there shall be maintained between the rear guard of the withdrawing troops and the advance units of the other party to the treaty an interval of not less than seven kilometers.
4. The following time limits are established for withdrawal, on various sectors of the national boundary, in accordance with Paragraph 3:
a) In the sector compromising the upper course of the Tuntsajoki River, Kuolajärvi, Takala, and the eastern shore of Lake Joukamojärvi the movement of troops of both parties to the treaty shall be completed on March 20, 1940, at 8:00 P.M.
b) In the Latva sector south of Kuhmonniemi, troops movements shall be completed on March 22, 1940, at 8:00 P.M.
c) In the Lonkavaara, Värtsilä and Matkaselkä station sector, troop movements of both parties shall be completed on March 22, at 8:00 P.M.
d) In the Koitsanlahti sector at Matkaselkä station, troop movements shall be completed on March 25, 1940, at 8:00 P.M.
e) In the Esno station sector at Koitsanlahti, troop movements shall be completed on March 25, 1940, at 8:00 P.M.
f) In the Paationsaari sector at Esno station, troop movements shall be completed on March 19, 1940, at 8:00 P.M.
5. Evacuation of troops of the Red Army from the Petsamo area shall be completed by April 10, 1940.
6. The command of each party to the treaty undertakes, while troops are withdrawing to the other side of the national boundary, to put into effect in the cities and localities to be ceded to the other party necessary measures for their preservation undamaged, and to put into effect measures necessary to the end that cities, localities, and establishments of defensive and economic importance (bridges, dams, airfields, barracks, storehouses, railway communications, industrial plants, telegraphs, electric power plants) shall be preserved from damage and destruction.
7. All questions which may arise upon the cession by one contracting party to the other of the areas, localities, cities, or other objectives referred to in Paragraph 6 of this protocol shall be settled on the spot by representatives of both parties to the treaty, for which purpose the command shall appoint special delegates for each main route of movement of both armies.
8. The exchange of prisoners of war shall be carried out in the briefest possible time after the cessation of hostilities on the basis of a special agreement.
March 12, 1940